Impact of Chlorine Species Passage through Polyamide RO Elements
By Lucy Wu, B.A.Sc., and Nik Krpan, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.
feedwater to a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Purified Water (PW) system should be continually monitored for its quality in order to determine the processing parameters required of the system. It would be impractical, however, to monitor every impurity that may be present. In the case of free chlorines and chloramines, removal units are often included in a pharmaceutical PW system, and as a result, monitoring of chlorine species is often overlooked. In the event that such removal units are not completely effective, the residual chlorine species that are carried downstream to the reverse osmosis (RO) unit can cause a number of unfavorable consequences. The most recognized consequence is associated with the system equipment, mainly the deterioration of the RO membrane. Other negative effects in terms of the product PW can also be observed if the residual chlorine species passes through the membrane and is found in the permeate. This article will investigate the passage of dilute chlorine solutions through a thin-film composite (tfc*) polyamide (PA) RO membrane
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