Ion Exchange Applications of Simulation Technology
By Michael Gottlieb
Ion exchange (IX) continues to gain popularity as the method of choice to remove trace contaminants from potable water, process water, boiler feedwaters, and industrial effluents. These are new and rapidly growing applications. The number of substances listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyﾒs (EPA) Maximum Contaminants List (MCL) continues to grow. Also, the MCL levels and purity requirements in all applications are becoming more stringent as our ability to measure lower concentrations of all substances and correlate them with health and production, benefits improves. To cite just a few examples, boron, total organic carbon (TOC), arsenic, and perchlorate are now specified to parts-per-billion (ppb) and sodium to parts-per-trillion (ppt) in applications where they were not mentioned 20 years ago.
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