Part 5: Impact of Clay on the Performance of Gypsum Scale Inhibitors
By Zahid Amjad, Ph.D.
The prevention of mineral scales and deposits presents a major challenge in the efficient operation of the industrial systems where water and water management are involved. Typical examples include boilers, cooling, desalination (thermal and membrane-based), oil and gas production, secondary oil recovery utilizing water flooding techniques, and geothermal systems. Common mineral scales such as carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates of alkaline earth metals form readily on flow surfaces such as heat exchanges, membranes, and process equipments handling supersaturated waters. The formation of mineral scales in industrial water systems is generally controlled by the incorporation of scale inhibitors such as phosphonates and low molecular weight polymers in the water treatment formulations.
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