Part 7: Influence of Rust Particles on the Performance of Inhibitors
By Zahid Amjad, Ph.D., and Dominique Guyton
The formation and adherence of scale-forming minerals on equipment surfaces continues to present performance limitations to industrial water systems (1). Common mineral scales such as calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and calcium sulfate form readily on flow surfaces such as heat exchangers, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, and other process equipments handling process waters. The formation of these mineral scales reduces heat transfer, decreases the internal diameter of pipes, increases the operating pressure of the pumps, and often results in premature equipment failure. Additionally, scaling is often accompanied by corrosion that leads to damage of metallic parts. In many instances, the removal of scales results in discontinuous operation of the systems. The systems commonly affected by these scales include boiler, cooling, desalination, geothermal, pulp and paper, and oil and gas production, among other areas.
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