Raw Water Disinfection Byproduct Effect on Conductivity and TOC in Ozonated USP Purified Water Systems
By William V. Collentro
Municipal drinking water treatment facilities use disinfecting agents to destroy bacteria. While the primary disinfecting agent is chlorine, chlorine dioxide, or ozone may be used. Chlorine has been used as a primary disinfecting agent in the United States since the early twentieth century (1). Disinfecting agents react with impurities in raw water to produce disinfection byproducts. The concentration of both disinfecting agent and disinfection byproducts in Drinking Water is specified in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyﾒs (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (2). A summary of regulated concentrations and associated health impact is presented in Table A (3). Heavy molecular weight naturally occurring organic material (NOM) in surface source water or ground source water influenced by surface water will react with residual chlorine producing both trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids. THMs include chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Haloacetic acids include dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid. In general, the most prevalent disinfection byproduct present in a municipal water supply (surface or groundwater influenced by surface water source) to a facility is chloroform.
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