Pharmaceuticals

Electropositive Aluminized Diatomaceous Earth For Use In Pharmaceutical Water Treatment

By Leonid Kaledin, Ph.D., and Fred Tepper

BACTERIA ENDOTOXINS MEMBRANES MICROBIALS NANOTECHNOLOGY PHARMACEUTICALS PYROGENS VIRUSES

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Abstract

Diatomaceous earths (DE) and other silicious particles (perlite and sand) are used extensively in water filtration. DE is mostly used as a filter aid. DE particles are accumulated on a septum, and separation is accomplished by size exclusion. After first depositing a precoat, additional DE is accumulated. This technique is instrumental in meeting U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for removing Cryptosporidium cysts in many municipal water treatment plants. Nevertheless, the precoat method has many disadvantages, one of which is that particles (such as bacteria and virus) that are smaller than the pore size of the DE bed will permeate the bed and contaminate the water. The authors also examine microbials, membranes, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical water treatment and pyrogens.

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