Meeting the ITRS Roadmap Guidelines for Particle Measurements in SEMICONDUCTOR High-Purity Water
By Bill Shade
Deionized (DI) water is used throughout electronics manufacturing. In semiconductor manufacturing, it is used for multiple processes, including the cleaning and etching of wafers. DI water is also used in other critical semiconductor processes such as chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and immersion lithography. More than 1,000 gallons of water is needed to process a single 300-millimeter (mm) wafer. Because DI water is used pervasively, and because it directly contacts the wafer, controlling its contaminants is critical to maintaining high yields in the semiconductor industry. On-line monitoring of particle levels is a standard method of controlling contamination in DI water systems. While these water systems do a great job of treating and filtering the water, the output needs to be monitored in the unlikely event there is a problem with the system. Particles can occur because of issues with the piping, ion-exchange beds, pumps, and/or filters.
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