The Water Engineer's Perspective on the Road to Particle Filtration
By Bernie Zerfas et al.
Particle measurement in deionized and ultrapure water (UPW*) systems has always been challenging and expensive. Companies promising accurate, on-line analysis are scarce. Operation, maintenance and diagnostics of available instruments are too often complicated, time consuming, and extremely costly. The American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) and the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) have published limits at various sizes, leaving water engineers the dubious task of adhering to those requirements for their customer base.
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